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DNA demethylation pathways: Additional players and regulators.

Bochtler, Matthias and Kolano, Agnieszka and Xu, Guo-Liang (2017) DNA demethylation pathways: Additional players and regulators. Bioessays, 39 (1). pp. 1-13.

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Official URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bies.20...


DNA demethylation can occur passively by "dilution" of methylation marks by DNA replication, or actively and independently of DNA replication. Direct conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to cytosine (C), as originally proposed, does not occur. Instead, active DNA methylation involves oxidation of the methylated base by ten-eleven translocations (TETs), or deamination of the methylated or a nearby base by activation induced deaminase (AID). The modified nucleotide, possibly together with surrounding nucleotides, is then replaced by the BER pathway. Recent data clarify the roles and the regulation of well-known enzymes in this process. They identify base excision repair (BER) glycosylases that may cooperate with or replace thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) in the base excision step, and suggest possible involvement of DNA damage repair pathways other than BER in active DNA demethylation. Here, we review these new developments.

Item Type:Article
Subjects:Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions:Department of Bioinformatics
ID Code:1270
Deposited By: Prof. Matthias Bochtler
Deposited On:23 Dec 2016 11:27
Last Modified:23 Dec 2016 11:27

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