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Fidelity of DNA replication - a matter of proofreading

Bebenek, Anna and Ziuzia-Graczyk, Izabela (2018) Fidelity of DNA replication - a matter of proofreading. Current Genetics . ISSN 0172-8083

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Official URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00294...

Abstract

DNA that is transmitted to daughter cells must be accurately duplicated to maintain genetic integrity and to promote genetic continuity. A major function of replicative DNA polymerases is to replicate DNA with the very high accuracy. The fidelity of DNA replication relies on nucleotide selectivity of replicative DNA polymerase, exonucleolytic proofreading and postreplicative DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Proofreading activity that assists most of the replicative polymerases is responsible for removal of incorrectly incorporated nucleotides from the primer terminus before further primer extension. It is estimated that proofreading improves the fidelity by a 2-3 orders of magnitude. The primer with the incorrect terminal nucleotide has to be moved to exonuclease active site, and after removal of the wrong nucleotide must be transferred back to polymerase active site. The mechanism that allows the transfer of the primer between pol and exo site is not well understood. While defects in MMR are well known to be linked with increased cancer incidence only recently, the replicative polymerases that have alterations in the exonuclease domain have been associated with some sporadic and hereditary human cancers. In this review, we would like to emphasize the importance of proofreading (3’-5’ exonuclease activity) in the fidelity of DNA replication and highlight what is known about switching from polymerase to exonuclease active site.

Item Type:Article
Subjects:Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Divisions:Department of Molecular Biology
ID Code:1519
Deposited By: dr hab. Anna Bebenek
Deposited On:28 Mar 2018 14:01
Last Modified:28 Mar 2018 14:01

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