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Products of Bisphenol A Degradation Induce Cytotoxicity in Human Erythrocytes (In Vitro)

Makarova, Katerina and Olchowik-Grabarek, Ewa and Drabikowski, Krzysztof and Kurkowiak, Justyna and Zawada, Katarzyna (2022) Products of Bisphenol A Degradation Induce Cytotoxicity in Human Erythrocytes (In Vitro). Int J Mol Sci, 24 (1).

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Official URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/24/1/492


The aim of this work has been to study the possible degradation path of BPA under the Fenton reaction, namely to determine the energetically favorable intermediate products and to compare the cytotoxicity of BPA and its intermediate products of degradation. The DFT calculations of the Gibbs free energy at M06-2X/6-311G(d,p) level of theory showed that the formation of hydroquinone was the most energetically favorable path in a water environment. To explore the cytotoxicity the erythrocytes were incubated with BPA and three intermediate products of its degradation, i.e., phenol, hydroquinone and 4-isopropylphenol, in the concentrations 5–200 μg/mL, for 1, 4 and 24 h. BPA induced the strongest hemolytic changes in erythrocytes, followed by hydroquinone, phenol and 4-isopropylphenol. In the presence of hydroquinone, the highest level of RONS was observed, whereas BPA had the weakest effect on RONS generation. In addition, hydroquinone decreased the level of GSH the most. Generally, our results suggest that a preferable BPA degradation path under a Fenton reaction should be controlled in order to avoid the formation of hydroquinone. This is applicable to the degradation of BPA during waste water treatment and during chemical degradation in sea water.

Item Type:Article
Subjects:Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions:Department of Biophysics
ID Code:1774
Deposited By: Dr Krzysztof Drabikowski
Deposited On:17 Jan 2023 08:11
Last Modified:17 Jan 2023 08:11

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