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Highly different effects of phage therapy and antibiotic therapy on immunological responses of chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

Grabowski, Łukasz and Węgrzyn, Grzegorz and Węgrzyn, Alicja and Podlacha, Magdalena (2022) Highly different effects of phage therapy and antibiotic therapy on immunological responses of chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Frontiers in Immunology, 13 . p. 956833. ISSN 1664-3224


Official URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu...


The appearance of bacteria resistant to most or even all known antibiotics has become a serious medical problem. One such promising and effective alternative form of therapy may be the use of phages, the administration of which is considered to be safe and highly effective, especially in animals with drug-resistant infections. Although there have been no reports to date suggesting that bacteriophages can cause any severe complications or adverse effects, we still know little about their interactions with animal organisms, especially in the context of the functioning of the immune system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the impact of the application of selected bacteriophages and antibiotics (enrofloxacin and colistin), commonly used in veterinary medicine, on immune functions in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-infected chickens. The birds were infected with S. Typhimurium and then treated with a phage cocktail (14 days), enrofloxacin (5 days), or colistin (5 days). The concentrations of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-8, and IL-12) and cytokines that reveal anti-inflammatory effects (IL-10 and IL-4), the percentage of lymphocytes, and the level of stress hormones (corticosterone and cortisol), which significantly modulate the immune responses, were determined in different variants of the experiment. The phage cocktail revealed anti-inflammatory effects when administered either 1 day after infection or 2 days after S. Typhimurium detection in feces, as measured by inhibition of the increase in levels of inflammatory response markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-8, and IL-12). This was also confirmed by increased levels of cytokines that exert an anti-inflammatory action (IL-10 and IL-4) following phage therapy. Moreover, phages did not cause a negative effect on the number and activity of lymphocytes’ subpopulations crucial for normal immune system function. These results indicate for the first time that phage therapy not only is effective but also can be used in veterinary medicine without disturbing immune homeostasis, expressed as cytokine imbalance, disturbed percentage of key immune cell subpopulations, and stress axis hyperactivity, which were observed in our experiments as adverse effects accompanying the antibiotic therapy.

Item Type:Article
Subjects:Q Science > QR Microbiology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR180 Immunology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR355 Virology
Divisions:Laboratory of Molecular Biology (in Gdansk)
ID Code:2181
Deposited By: MSc Łukasz Grabowski
Deposited On:27 Sep 2022 07:01
Last Modified:27 Sep 2022 07:01

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