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Highly mutagenic exocyclic DNA adducts are substrates for the human nucleotide incision repair pathway

Prorok, Paulina and Saint-Pierre, Christine and Gasparutto, Didier and Fedorova, Olga S. and Ischenko, Alexander A. and Tudek, Barbara and Saparbaev, Murat (2012) Highly mutagenic exocyclic DNA adducts are substrates for the human nucleotide incision repair pathway. PLoS One, 7 (17). e51776.

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Background: Oxygen free radicals induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) that damages and breaks polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes. LPO-derived aldehydes and hydroxyalkenals react with DNA leading to formation of etheno(ε)-bases including 1,N6-ethenoadenine (εA) and 3,N4-ethenocytosine (εC). The εA and εC residues are highly mutagenic in mammalian cells and eliminated in the base excision repair (BER) pathway and/or by AlkB family proteins in the direct damage reversal process. BER initiated by DNA glycosylases is thought to be the major pathway for the removal of non-bulky endogenous base damage. Alternatively, in the nucleotide incision repair (NIR) pathway, the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases can directly incise DNA duplex 5’ to a damaged base in a DNA glycosylase-independent manner. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, we characterized the substrate specificity of human major AP endonuclease 1, APE1, towards εA, εC, thymine glycol (Tg) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8oxoG) residues when present in duplex DNA. APE1 cleaves oligonucleotide duplexes containing εA, εC and Tg, but not those containing 8oxoG. The activity depends strongly on sequence context. The apparent kinetic parameters of the reactions suggest that APE1 has high affinity to DNA containing ε-bases but cleaves DNA duplex at an extremely slow rate. Consistent with this observation, the oligonucleotide duplexes containing an ε-base strongly inhibit AP site nicking activity of APE1 with IC50 values in the range of 5-10 nM. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the reaction products demonstrated that APE1-catalyzed cleavage of εA•T and εC•G duplexes generates as expected DNA fragments containing 5’-terminal ε-base residue. Conclusions/Significance: The fact that ε-bases and Tg in duplex DNA are recognized and cleaved by APE1 in vitro, suggest that NIR may act as a backup pathway to BER one to remove a large variety of genotoxic base lesions in human cells.

Item Type:Article
Subjects:Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions:Department of Molecular Biology
ID Code:501
Deposited By: Prof. Barbara Tudek
Deposited On:11 Apr 2014 12:24
Last Modified:14 Oct 2014 10:10

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